Note: The following journal entries do not necessarily
reflect on everything that is going on with the experiment in itself
that I am working on. This journal is more of an informal list
of things that I have done. This journal is more a record of things
that I have done during the
NSF REU Program at SUNY at Stony Brook for the Summer of 2001.
For more detailed entries that only involve the experiment, findings,
and results please consult in the Experimental Notebook. I
must also apologize to you, I have a tendency to write a lot. I will
try to keep things at a minimum.
Monday, 11 June 2001:
- Received an introduction of the laboratory that I will be working
in, the Laser
Teaching Center at SUNY at Stony Brook.
- Looked at different projects
that others have worked in the past by looking at their weekly reports
and presentations. That way I can get an idea on what I like to work
- Created my own web page for the lab. Dr. Noé,
my advisor, gave me a book to brush up on my HTML.
Tuesday, 12 June 2001:
- The research that I think is the most interesting to do for the
summer will consist of either Raman spectroscopy, tunable diode
lasers, or sonoluminescence, mainly depending on the amount of time
that the experiment will require (I only have eight weeks).
- My search for information on Raman spectroscopy on the internet
has yielded somewhat vague information.
- Most of the things that I was able to find were articles about
sonoluminescence. For the most part, I spent a day looking at
- Downloaded some interesting articles and Dr. Noé printed some of
them to have around in the lab.
- I am remembering the HTML language (it has been over six years the
last time I used it) and I am learning how to use LINUX.
Wednesday, 13 June 2001:
- A decision was made. I am going to go with sonoluminescence.
It seems that it is the more feasible thing to do of the three projects
that I was looking into. It is also the subject that I am the most
unfamiliar with, so that will make it more interesting.
- There are many articles in journals that I have found and as of now I
am trying to weed through them.
Thursday, 14 June 2001:
- It seems that most of the information that can be found online are
just, as Dr. Noé puts it, "kitchen cookbooks" on how to produce
single-bubble sonoluminescence. I decided to go to one of the main
sources for creating single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL), which is
an article printed on a regular column in Scientific American called The
Amateur Scientist. This article became the basis for many
webpages that try to explain the procedure to create single-bubble
- R.A. Hiller and B.P. Barber, "Producing Light From A Bubble Of Air",
The Amateur Scientist. Scientific American, 96-98 (February 1995).
- L. A. Crum, "Sonoluminescence",
Physics Today, 22-29 (September 1994).
Friday, 15 June 2001:
- Continued to look through articles and downloaded some from the
- S.J. Putterman, "Sonoluminescence: Sound Into Light",
Scientific American, 46-51 (February 1995).
Monday, 18 June 2001:
- Continued to download some articles, trying to find any recent
developments or ideas that have already been implemented and go from
there. A list of articles that are going to be used or are being
considered can be found here.
- I am supposed to start getting to know some of the equipment here.
With the articles that I have read, we can figure out what are the
things that we are going to need. I played around a bit with the
function generator and the oscilloscope, among other things in order
to figure how to produce single-bubble sonoluminescence.
Tuesday, 19 June 2001:
- An article a day keeps the doctor away.
- S.J. Putterman, "Sonoluminescence: The Star In A Jar",
Physics World, 38-42 (May 1998).
- Every Tuesday, students from the Physics REU Program will meet for
talks and to take tours of different laboratories in the department.
Today we took a tour of the
Van de Graaff
laboratory given by Rich Lefferts.
- I will be reading a book to familiarize myself more with
Operational Amplifiers. I plan on reading the first few chapters to
get an idea of the electronics that I am going to need.
- IC Op-Amp Cookbook by Walter G. Jung.
Wednesday, 20 June 2001:
- Read an article on the production of sonoluminescence done by a
student here at SUNY at Stony Brook.
- R.P. Fliller III and H. Metcalf, "Sonoluminescence: Experiment
Journal of Undergraduate Research 2 (2), 108-121 (Spring 1996).
- After reading the article I decided to do a little
experiment following their advice in order to check how the equipment
was set up. They recommended to make a plot of the amplitude of the
microphone response as a function of frequency as I scanned in +/- 5
kHz intervals around the resonant frequency of the flask (25,000 Hz).
- Went to the library and made some copies of articles that I could
not find online. We should now have a sufficient amount of articles
here in the lab on sonoluminescence.
- Dr. Noé showed me how to degas the water by using a pump and
supervised the handling of the equipment. After adding a bubble to
the water flask, we were able to retain the bubble at the resonant
frequency. We could see a bubble "dance" around, but no
sonoluminescence was observed.
Thursday, 21 June 2001:
- Read two articles.
- B.P. Barber, R. Hiller, K. Arisaka, H. Fetterman, and S. Putterman.
"Resolving The Picosecond Characteristics Of Synchronous Sonoluminescence",
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 91 (5),
3061-3063 (May 1992).
- B.P. Barber and S. Putterman. "Observation of Synchronous Picosecond
Sonoluminescence", Nature 352, 318-320 (25 July 1991).
- Painted the inside of a box in black. I plan on putting the flask
of water inside the box so that I can be better able to observe
- We had some visitors at the Laser Teaching Center that wanted to know
more about the things that go on here. I spent some time talking to them
Friday, 22 June 2001:
- Read two articles.
- L.A. Crum and G.T. Reynolds, "Sonoluminescence Produced By "Stable"
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 78 (1),
137-139 (July 1985).
- R.G. Holt and L.A. Crum, "Acoustically Forced Oscillations of Air
Bubbles In Water: Experimental Results",
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 91 (4),
1924-1932 (April 1992).
- Painted a second coat of black paint inside the box, this time with
a more opaque black paint.
- Read a little more of Walter G. Jung's book.
- Made a small opening in the box, just big enough to see with
my eye any sonoluminescence.
Monday, 25 June 2001:
- Covered some of the open wires. I don't really feel like getting
shocked. I want to see light come from bubbles of air, not light
coming out of me as I get fried.
- With the same water from last week, Dr. Noé asked me to look at
the resonating bubbles to see how they behaved in the water that was
degased last week so that we can then compare with a more degased
water. The water that we have has gas, along with some dust.
- Cleaned the flask that we are using and filled it up with
clean water. I then degased it, just like the last time.
- I was unable to get a resonance signal amplitude of 4.0 volts.
The maximum that I was able to obtain was 3.5 volts. I was also able
to observe the disruption of the resonating bubble in the
oscilloscope, but I was unable to actually see the bubble this time.
Tuesday, 26 June 2001:
- Read one article.
- D. F. Gaitan, L. A. Crum, C. C. Church, and R. A. Roy,
"Sonoluminescence and bubble dynamics for a single, stable,
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 91,
- Started getting ready for small informal presentations that the
Laser Teaching Center is going to do today, part of the NSF REU
Program. Today, we get to show my fellow REU students what we do and
plan on doing.
- I was actually able to produce a bubble today. This was just
for the sole purpose of demonstrating the "dancing" bubble so
that people could see its size.
- Using the degased water from yesterday, I was able to scan
different frequencies to observe the behavior of a bubble. I
was able to see what the upper and lower threshold boundaries
where the bubble is stable. I then scanned different frequencies
using 10 mHz intervals with the lights off to see if I could see
any sonoluminescence. Nothing was observed.
Wednesday, 27 June 2001:
- I spent most of the morning trying to print a couple of articles.
I don't know what is wrong, but I was unable to print the articles
that I wanted to read.
- Checked out the book "Frontiers of Nonlinear Acoustics: 12th
International Symposium of Nonlinear Acoustics" so that I could
eventually photocopy an article by D.F. Gaitan and L.A. Crum.
- Using the degased water from Monday and following the same
procedure from yesterday, I scanned different frequencies using 10 mHz
intervals with the lights off to see if I could see any
By accident I scanned higher than what I was planning on scanning and
was able to observe SBSL for about five minutes, with the same bubble,
only glowing for three-five seconds at a time, flickering off and on. I
scanned and was able to observe SBSL between 27185 Hz and 27475 Hz.
Thursday, 28 June 2001:
- In the morning I printed a couple of articles, the ones that I had
problems printing yesterday.
- Looked at results from other experiments that have been done in
the part to see if my results from yesterday are similar to others. I
want to see if the sonoluminescence that I produced yesterday can be
- Looked at a website that had some answers to the specific
questions that I was trying to figure out. Most of the websites out
there are just "cookbooks" with the same information over and over
again. This website included information that was not found elsewhere,
mostly about ideas on how to stablelize the bubble.
The website was created by one W.A. Steer (a graduate student at
University College London). This can be found on my list of websites,
along with the website by Reinhard.
- Duplicated my experiment yesterday to show the people the
sonoluminescence. The sonoluminescent bubble is not stable by any
means again and I showed it to people so they could see it. Now the plan of
attack is to stabilize the bubble to have it last for more than a few
Friday, 29 June 2001:
- In the morning I printed and read an article.
- D. F. Gaitan and L. A. Crum,
"Observation of Sonoluminescence From A Single, Stable Cavitation Bubble
In A Water/Glycerene Mixture",
Frontiers of Nonlinear Acoustics: Proceedings of 12th ISNA.
Edited by M.F. Hamilton and D.T. Blackstock, 459-463 (1990).
- Tried to repeat the experiment one more time, this time I was going
to try to maximize the amplitude coming out with the LC Circuit. My
water had a lot of gas and the only thing that I could do is make sure
that the LC Circuit and the function generator were in phase with one
another and the the maximum resonance is obtained.
Monday, 02 July 2001:
- In the morning I printed and read an article about
sonoluminescence, sonochemistry, and cavitation.
- K. Suslick, "Sonochemistry",
Science 247, 1439-1445 (March 1990).
- Boiled a flask of water for the experiment so that I could have
some freshly degased water. I want to be able to play with the
degased water that has been boiled.
- Along with the boiled water, I also degased some of the water by
pumping it. I want to be able to also play with the degased water
that has been pumped.
Tuesday, 03 July 2001:
- Looked into some of the websites that Dr. Noé sent me last
afternoon to see if they were helpful towards our experiment.
- Went to the library to read a little bit of an article (that I
was unable to find online and was too big to make copies of).
- B.P. Barber, R. Hiller, R. Lofstedt, S.J. Putterman and K.R. Weninger.
"Defining the Unknowns Of Sonoluminescence", Physics Reports
281 (2), 65-143 (1 March 1997).
- Went to the weekly NSF REU Program physics group meeting. Today's
speaker was Dr. Thomas Hemmick
and the topic was "Recreating the Birth of the Universe", a talk about
RHIC and the Phenix Project.
- As part of the NSF REU Program we are supposed to give a
presentation and write a small report of what we have done over the
summer time. I decided to start on the report to get the history and
theory out of the way. I will not have that available online until it
is somewhat completed.
- Tried to run the experiment again, this time I was going to try to
maximize the amplitude coming out with the LC Circuit. I was able to
find a maximum amplitude of 4.0 volts at around 26,629 Hz, driving it
with the function generator at 9.0 volts, but unable to sustain a
bubble. I then tried to repeat my previous success by looking at
around 27,250 Hz, but the amplitude was only about 2.0 volts. The
bubble was only sustained for about 1-2 seconds at a time and it would
then dissolve away. I think the water might be degased too much
- I showed Dr. Noé what I had and he helped me maximize the
output measured by the oscilloscope while minimizing the input. Part
of the problem was the calibration of the oscilloscope and the rest of
the problem was the way the wires were set up. In the arrangement
that we have, some of the voltage was drawn away by being close to the
function generator. In the end, we could have a maximum amplitude of
around 4.5 volts at around 26600 Hz, driving the function generator at
around 7.0 volts. That was a vast improvement.
- While looking for resonances, Dr. Noé and I noticed that
there was a drastic change of resonant frequency as the volume of the
flask changed. Contrary to some of the articles that I have read
which mention that a small change in volume inside the flask would not
change the resonant frequency by much, we found that a 1-2 mL change
in the amount of water would change the resonant frequency by around
50 Hz. The plan is to study this a little more.
Thursday, 05 July 2001:
- Talked to Dr. Metcalf
today about the things that I have been doing. We talked about
sonoluminescence and impedance matching. He suggested that I look
more into LC circuits and study the effect that different volumes have
on the resonant frequency.
- Read some more of Walter G Jung's book
- Noticed that there was still some noise that was being picked up by
the "microphone" wires since they were close to the "speaker" wires.
The two different types of wires were separated.
Friday, 06 July 2001:
- Made measurements and a plot using Quattro Pro of frequency
vs. voltage just to see what the voltages are at specific frequencies
with a multimeter. I scanned from about 24000 to about 27700 Hz using
10 Hz intervals, with the highest voltage found at 26600 Hz. The
water used has absorbed some gas in the last few days.
One thing that needs to be mentioned about the multimeter is that when
measuring the voltage, the accuracy of the measurement decreases at
higher frequencies. This is due to the specifications of the
multimeter. In order to correct this, a specific voltage can be
measured at different frequencies in order to "calibrate" the
Monday, 09 July 2001:
- Read an article.
- H.P. Greenspan and A. Nadim,
"On Sonoluminescence Of An Oscillating Gas Bubble",
Physics Review Letters 5 (4), 1065-1067 (April 1993).
- Degased some water by pumping on it.
- The purpose for today is to repeat the measurements that I made on
Friday with the same water, this time to compare the differences
between this freshly degased water and the degased water that has
absorbed gas for five days (measurements from last week). These
measurements were made with the same amount of water (approximately
129 ml), then with 1 mL of water taken out (128 mL), and then with 2 mL
less (127 mL). The results were somewhat mysterious.
After further investigation with Dr. Noé, we came to the
conclusion that not only is a multimeter giving us an inacurate
measurement due to the high frequencies, but the cable had some
capacitance that "corrupted" the measurements. A measurement with the
multimeter at an specific frequency would yield great changes in
voltage at the slight movement of the BNC cables that go from the the
flask to the multimeter. Now, measurements made by the oscilliscope
were barely noticible when the cable was shaken. Measurements will be
continued using an oscilliscope.
Note: Please note that at 127 and 128 mL, the
measurements are not complete. These measurements were just taken in
order to observe the peak resonance instead of scanning all of the