## Journal

### June 28, 2004

Today was our first day. It started out with a nice breakfast where I first met Professor Metcalf, Professor Noe, and Jon. When we came to the lab I met two other guys Ani and Matt who will also be working with us in the Lab. We went outside and Dr. Noe showed us alot of examples about how the thickness and shape of the lens affects the image. We saw converging and diverging lenses, as well as a spherical lens and a small glass ketchup bottle (with the label removed and filled with water). We learned that the strength ratio of a lens is the thickness of the middle of the lens/diameter. So the ratio of a sphere is 1. After lunch and getting our ID cards, and a brief tour, Professor Metcalf gave us an introduction to the topic which the speaker that was coming was going to address. The speech was about dipole moments.

### June 29, 2004

So today was our second day, we spent the majority of the morning working on trying to calculate the size of the image of the sun, when going through glasses with a 1.25 diopter lens. The term diopter is the is just the measure of the power of a lens or mirror and it is measured in inverse meters. Dr. Node explained to us that the reason it is measured like that is because the inverse of the sum of the size of the object and image equals the inverse of the focus length. And the inverse of the diopter is the focal length of the lens. I then graphed image size vs. focal length, and it seemed to be in a straight line, but the line if continued intersected the x axis at 10. This would mean that when the focal length was 10 then the size of the image is zero. The only time the image should be zero is when the focal length is zero. We all then went outside to attempt to correct our data. We were not able to correct it because of our flawed methods. The angle of the ruler when we were measure the focal length, and the fact that we could not keep the lens or the image still were two possible sources of error. After we thought we collected our data we proceeded to use the magnifying glass to set pieces of paper on fire.

### June 30, 2004

I came to the lab early today determined to read and understand one of the articles in the journal, but I did not result in any success. Alot of the morning was spent mastering Linux. Matt is officially The Linux Master aka PENGUIN because Linux is a Penguin. After lunch we searched fervently for the nonexistent ice cream social, which has been postponed until tomorrow. After lunch the graph of the data from yesterday started to haunt us so for the third time we went outside to collect more data. When I graphed the data it was 100 percent better than it had been the other day. This enabled us to reclaim our dignity.

Later in the afternoon we had a talk with Dr. Metcalf about Laser cooling, it was very exciting because I was able to understand it. It dealt with wave particle duality, and he used an example of even if something as arbitrary as a frog was forced through a slit (even though it would be difficult) it would exhibit wave properties and fringes would appear. After the meeting we planned more talks from scientists, which I am very excited about.

### July 1, 2004

For lunch today everyone in the lab ate pizza, it was fun. We had an interesting conversation about kosher food. It was also brought to my attention that French horn should not be capitalized, who knew? After lunch we all rushed to go see if there was anything left from the ice cream social...but to our dismay there was nothing but the remnants of fully melted bittersweet chocolate chips stuck to the side of the container. After speaking to the lady she said that there were many other places where we could scavenge food and we then we began our hunt. We found food in the auditorium where we took cookies (Ani liked the sugar ones) and Jon and I decided that because of our find we could bypass dinner tonight. However, I am sure that he will be eating dinner anyways. Matt also today is advancing in his transformation into...THE PENGUIN!!

I read some articles today in Optics and Photonics news. I read about near-infrared spectroscopy which is a technique to see into the brain and measure oxidation. This can be accomplished because hemoglobin depending on how oxidized it is absorbs light. Therefore the oxidation is based on a measurement of how much light emerges from the body tissue it is shined on. I read some other articles and one thing I found interesting was that when the correlated color temperature was high it was in light that accentuates the color blue and is considered cool light. I also read an article which proposed making pixels a pyramid shape with each side being either red blue or green.

The article which I think I am going to spend time researching further is on fractals. The article said that a fractal type pattern appears in lasers that have unstable cavities. I'm not really sure what that means but I do know alot about fractals, which then links to chaos theory. This article also brought up the topic of Fresnel numbers and Diffraction Patterns. I think I am going to look this up later today.

### July 2, 2004

We had two talks today one in the morning from Dr. Metcalf about laser cooling and then one in the afternoon from Jose about CCD camera's.

We learned in the morning that atoms can only be excited by light with the right frequency. This frequency must be accurate to two parts in one billion. Dr. Metcalf used an example of lining up tiny bugs from here to the empire state building and it would have to be accurate to the legs of the bug. We learned from the other day that momentum is always conserved. Light when it hits something and is absorbed momentum is still conserved because light has particle properties. So when the light gets absorbed it moves to a higher energy level. Then when the atom loses energy it emits light of the same frequency which it absorbed. Then we talked about the Doppler shift and how it relates to the frequency and force of the laser. It goes something like this: An atom is being hit by two opposite lasers(acting as waves) if the atom wants to move in the direction of one of the lasers (which means that it is opposite of the second laser) then the frequency increases of the laser that it is going with because of the principal of the Doppler shift. well i have to go because otherwise i will be stranded here for the weekend. Yay for the weekend

### July 6, 2004

This morning the lab floor was being waxed so we hung out in the lobby until Dr. Noe came and rescued us. We went into the conference room where we discussed many things. We talked about possibilities for our projects. There was an article in the times which described windmills which are going to be constructed and placed around two and a half miles off Robert Mosely beach. They said that the windmills would look like a dime in the horizon. We then proceeded to calculate how far the windmills would have to be from the shore to really look like a dime. And it was accurate the windmills would be the size of a dime on the horizon assuming that they are 100m tall and 4km (2.4) miles off the shore. We then estimated the weight of a nickel. I won with my accurate guess of 5g the actual is 4.916 but close enough at any rate. We then talked about the frequency of the sound when one blows across the top of a bottle, when the amount of water in the bottle differs. We were introduced to the library today. We spent the whole afternoon there because the room smelled like ammonia.

### July 8, 2004

I apologize to all the avid fans that yesterday did not include an entry. I was still recovering from THE INCIDENT (refer to other journals for more details, however in my defense it was a long weekend) But to summarize in a few words we took advantage of the free bbq that the university was having. Followed by our meeting where there was free pizza and we learned about the honors college at Stony Brook. Then Jon and I watched the spray painting t-shirt lady, well, spray paint t-shirts. Azure and Yiyi wanted to get Maxwell's equation, which i intend on researching tomorrow, but it was too long. Then we did some reading in the library and came back to the lab.

So this morning shortly after arriving our speaker Kiko Galvez came into the lab and we discussed what was going on in the lab. To make an analogy it was like having backstage passes to a concert. We got to meet the star before the performance. So we had pizza because today is Thursday and then we listened to the talk. It was about laser modes and converting them. During the talk it was difficult to understand but then after Jose, Azure and Alex, a Simons fellow alum, helped us to understand. We were at the lab for a record time today until 7:30! We also saw Alex's project, he did something similar to laser modes and used a hair to diffract the laser, which was interesting.

### July 9, 2004

Today has been a pretty good day in more ways than one, well except for the beginning of the day. I decided to put sugar syrup in my coffee, however, it did not mix into the coffee but floated on the surface. I think that it was oil, because it made the coffee taste like lipstick. So at the lab I worked on Linux (please take note of the rainbow dates). Then we had a really cool talk with Professor Metcalf about MOT's it was just the introduction, still interesting. He talked about how if one cuts a magnet in half a new N and S pole will be produced. One can continue to do this beyond the atomic level and the N and S poles will still be produced. The concept really stunned me, very very cool. We have not been able to prove this YET which Professor Metcalf said was always the key word.

We then went to "hear about the Siemens Competition" with the Garcia kids. We mainly went for the food, which, yes you've guessed right, was free. Then we came back to the lab where we were trying to do more Linux. Then Azure and Yiyi came back to the lab with a plastic bag of wraps. And much to my delight the chicken salad wraps had diced pistachios in them. Then we reviewed laser modes, which Kiko Galvez talked about yesterday, and actually produced "doughnuts" out of the laser beams ourselves.

### July 12, 2004

I am so sore from lacrosse this weekend it is ridiculous. Anyways I struggled to walk to the lab in the morning and Dr. Noe showed me a really good website that has alot about fractals and what not, I read an article which focused on the "monitor inside a monitor" technique. I added this to my web links page

I went to the library today to take out books this afternoon. I found some really good ones and I was very excited to take them out because the books had some information on Maxwell's equations and Schrodinger's equation etc. which I have yet to thoroughly look up. So I then found out that I am not allowed to take out books. Perhaps I will go tomorrow.

### July 13, 2004

Jon and I came to the lab a little late this morning because the fire alarm went off in our dorm at 3:18 in the morning. We stood outside in the cold rain for at least a half hour, not very pleasing. So the first thing we did this morning was scavenge the leftover food from the freshmen orientation breakfast. When we were there a woman yelled at us, saying that the food was not for us. Well we went back at lunch and took the food anyways. Professor Metcalf's talk was a continuation of MOT's. He went into detail about the optical part of MOT's. I spent most of the afternoon in the library reading. I found a really great book which had basics of laser physics. I took many pages of notes and this clarified many of my questions. Still some topics I could not understand like Maxwell's Equation and the Complex Representation of Light Fields. I read about the Goos-Hanchen shift which I found very interesting. After dinner I also went back to the library. Then I walked home, by myself, in the rain. rain

### July 14, 2004

This morning Jon and I went to the Brookhaven lab. Here we learned about a gigantic ring particle accelerator. Basically the machine which is a gigantic ring accelerates heavy ions most commonly gold. Then bunches of the ions crash together and then little particles fly all over the place at different check points on the ring. At each check points are huge magnets and detectors which take account for different aspects of the collision. The goal of this research is to find out what happened in the first milliseconds of the universe or right after the big bang occurred.

Jon and I rushed back to the lab after eating lunch to listen to José's talk. He addressed alot of different things like Gaussian beams and we also defined many terms like coupling, columated etc which have always been somewhat shady in my mind. Tonight I want to read articles about the Goos-Hanchen shift when I get back to my dorm.

### July 16, 2004

Well I do not think that I have ever been tempted to steal a book from the library except for today. This morning was frustrating because after the lab was unlocked I walked in and then shortly after went to the library. I was there long enough to find some good books only to realize that it was time to go to the "INTEL meeting" which we were graciously invited to. When we got back from the meeting we talked about what our projects are going to be about. Then we shot terms at Dr. Noe and he was able to answer all of our questions. Then Azure took a new picture of me for my web page. yay!

Anyways after that I went out in the hall to resume reading my interferometry book. Then it was really cold so i decided to go up to the library and I found a really great book on chaos. It was comprehendable but seemed to be at a legitimate level. This book really was representative of how EVERYTHING is interconnected. The introduction of the book mentioned linear and nonlinear optics, laser modes, chaos, quantum optics, Raman lasing, free electron lasers etc. So now I'm sure you can understand my temptation to subtly remove the book from the library. Especially since I am going to be going to MD this weekend for a lacrosse tournament and last summer this drive took, wait let me think, 9 HOURS?!?!?! Well at any rate it will be tons of lacrosse and I can look forward to coming back to the lab and this good book that I found on Monday.

On another note: HAPPY BIRTHDAY MATT AND YIYI!!!!!.....tomorrow

### July 20, 2004

Monday morning. I had to pack really quickly for this week and amazingly I remembered everything except for soap. I will have to borrow my room mates soap for this week. Anyways I decided this morning to get right down to business, so I went straight to the library to read the book that I had found on Friday. I was in the library from 10 to 1:30 wild times. It turns out that there are alot of connections between quantum mechanics and chaos. Dr. Noe visited me in the library and suggested that I look into fractals and lasers. Once again it seemed that all the books that looked moderantly relevant were in a different library. sigh. After lunch we built a Michelson interferometer. It was good. Jose suggested that we start fooling around with different set-ups and experiments that we can duplicate.

### July 21, 2004

I did a little research this morning on the computer and then we went and toured the life science building (by we I mean Ani, Jon, Matt, Yaagnik, Azure, Yiyi and me). It really was an interesting tour once again like our other tour lasers and optics were everywhere. There were lasers that were used to look at the mutated zebra fish, as well as many high precision CCD camera's. This makes me sad because if lasers and optics are literally everywhere why am I unable to find a project?!?! This depresses me.

Anyways in the afternoon I was feeling quite under the weather. In fact I still am. Lidiya's talk on Fourier analysis was very in depth yet I understood most of it. At least now Fourier transform will not be a word that causes a large question mark to appear in my head.

On to the more ludicrous stuff of the day... Ani suggested after the talk that I should be shoved into a small section of the book shelf. Contrary to the consensus my "shooting in the head" gesture is ten times better than any of the other gestures. Also two spaces after a period is better than one space. Thank you.

### July 22, 2004

This morning we came to the conclusion that freshmen orientation was no more, which means that we will have to find another place to get free food. So this morning I did some research on fractals and the Talbot effect. I revisited my first link and printed out some articles. The I added a link to my weblinks thing. Then we had lunch.

At lunch, well first off let me just say that mushroom and pepperoni pizza were a great idea, in my opinion much better than garlic, and we missed Dr. Noé and Yiyi. Anyways we discussed our research interests at lunch. So I mentioned the Talbot effect in my list of topics of interest. Dr. Metcalf said that I should look into a project focusing on the Talbot effect and Fresnel zone plates. The thought of potentially having a project uplifted my heart. So I looked up Fresnel zone plates until it was time for José's talk.

Then it was time for kick boxing and after kick boxing I swam laps from 8 to 9:30 because no one wanted to play Frisbee. After that there was a dorm meeting because we are all bad children. Overall a good and productive day.

### July 26, 2004

Fresnel (pronounced freh-NEL) Today is one of those days where you go outside and just have to smile because the sun is shining and it's perfect temperature. I had iced coffee this morning that was quite tasty.

I began to fool around with the Fresnel zone plate on the carriage today. That was very exciting. I am using a fiber optic cable to produce a divergent beam and then a lens which I had to place so that a coherent beam is produced. Azure and I first mounted the cable and the lens on a table and then the zone plate was on the carriage. This was way too difficult to level so I put everything on the carriage. It was still difficult to mount but eventually I conquered it.

### July 27, 2004

Last night I read "Heart of Darkness" which I intended to read until I fell asleep, but I really got into the book, and although it is hard to believe I did not fall asleep reading it. I remember trying to read it when I was a frosh and not understanding it at all.

Today Dr. Noé and I spent a long time deriving an equation relating the the focus of the zone plate. Later I want to look at a book more closely about the zone plates. I also counted the rings on the zone plate. Dr. Noé took a picture of it so that I could count the rings. I was only able to count up to 29 rings though. For this I estimate that there are 40 rings on the plate. Dr. Metcalf wants me to make a zone plate with 100 rings. I think that this would make more foci. Dr. Noé suggested also measuring the intensity of the foci. He said that the intensity is supposed to vary sinusoidally. Very exciting. Lunch was good today. Lots of laughs.

### July 28, 2004

Today I did alot of reading and I really have a clear head about Fresnel zone plates. I added a few links regarding this topic to my page.

In the morning Azure and I discussed whether or not each individual color "froot loop" had a different flavor. We came to the conclusion that they all tasted the same. We went to the ice cream social and after piling all the ice cream we could into one little bowl Jon and I ventured to our writing meeting.

In most cases a Fresnel zone plate is described as a lens which focuses light by using diffraction instead of refraction with a low efficiency of about 10%. I read an article on fractal zone plates that was very interesting. The article described how to make a fractal zone plate, which will be easy to make when I master the art of making Fresnel zone plates. There are two types of diffraction: Fraunhofer diffraction (far-field) and Fresnel diffraction(near-field). There are also amplitude zone plates and phase zone plates. An amplitude zone plate blocks radiation in correspondence with the coated zones and has a 10% light efficiency. The radius of each opaque ring is proportional to the square root of the natural numbers. And the area that each ring encloses is equal. The image and the object also obeys the thin lens formula. The total distance from the source to the edge of a ring to the recieving plane is exactly one wavelenght longer than the ring inside of it. The optical resoluction of the zone plate is proportional to the width of the ring with the largest diameter. Another interesting fact is that often the center of the ZP is sold to isolate the first order from unwanted other orders. Essentially when the middle of the zone plate is transparent then it is a pin hole. The main application of zone plates is x-ray scanning microscopy. Zone plates are also useful becuase they can focus radiation.

For dinner I asked the serving man to give me extra chicken fingers, Jon and Ani were mad that I did that, or just jealous. Then Dr. Noé showed me pictures of his recent trip to Ithaca. His youngest grandaughter is very cute. The movie that I saw last night with Jon and a few other of my friends was great, so great in fact it deserves a link: Garden State. Really good.

### July 29, 2004

I read an article the morning that discussed Fresnel zone plates in relation to photography and the types of films it discussed was ortho film, tech pan film and lith ortho film to make zone plates.

### July 30, 2004

lithography scanning & x-ray microscopy axial behavior of cantor ring diffractals, focusing properties of fractal zone plates

### August 2, 2004

I bought high contrast black and white film this weekend so that I can make my own zone plates with around 100 rings. Another zone plate was found today it has a smaller diameter and the center is clear opposed to opaque like the one that I have been using. I blocked out all the light going through the plates with black tape. This hopefully should allow me to observe the characteristics of the diffracted light more clearly. I also mounted a larger lens so that the edge of the beam would not be hard because of the light being blocked by the edges of the previous lens.

We did not go to the hospital today for lunch because Ani refused to go. Anywyas after lunch I started fooling around with the zone plates and trying once again to accomplish the tedious task of colimating the light. I mounted a second lens which I was able to colimate easier than the first. This new one is the same size but I think the focal length is longer. This time when I was looking at my original zone plate images I found 5 foci. With the new ZP I could not see any foci at all.

Professor Metcalf found Long Cai's paper for me so I will read that later. That was pretty exciting. Right now as of a project I am up to measuring the intensity of the light at the foci of the ZP and comparing the foci to where the Talbot Images occur.

### August 3, 2004

The first order of the day was to steal food from freshmen orientation. However, our skills were a little rusty and we were not able to complete our task. After being chased away by our evil antagonist we thought that we could stealthily go in through the back door. Our plan was foiled! We were out smarted by the evil woman, who gave us menacing glares from the back door as we approached. But our cat like reflexes enabled us to scatter like beads falling off a broken necklace.

See Jon's Journal If you would like to read another funny rendition of the first event of the day.

I throughly read Long Cai's paper today and analyzed all the formula's. This was very productive. I was able to confirm mathematically that the radius of the zones (concentric circles of the plate) do increase by a factor of the square roots of the consecutive integers times the radius of the first zone. I spent a long time today attempting to colimate the light, but none of the lenses seemed to be right because (surprise) none of them were colimating. And guess what none of the lenses were right.

Tomorrow is my birthday and also the tour of the lab. I am expected to give a talk about my project and research. I also have to make a proposal for my project for my intel forms as well as an abstract for the Simons Fellow booklet. The exciting event of tonight should be Harold and Kumar go to White Castle. This will probably make Jon feel better because he has been feeling sick recently.

(yay for almost being 17!)

### August 4, 2004

Today is my seventeenth birthday!!

### August 5, 2004

Yesterday Dr. Noé brought in Mathematica for me. I installed it and figured out how to make circles. This might work, I will have to ask José tomorrow. I also from Long Cai's paper understood the formula's for making zone plates. I wrote my abstract for Simons today I will need to do some more work on it tomorrow though.

### August 9, 2004

I realized today that one of the reasons why my laser beam is so difficult to collimate is because the carriage is not level. I also spent a good amount of time searching for the Ronchi grating. I took down careful measurements today of where the foci are on the carriage. It was frustrating that the grating that I needed has dissapeared. Well now that the carriage is level now maybe tomorrow I can look at the intensity at the foci which I measured. Dr. Noé also suggested looking at:
• when the light is diverging with the Ronchi and ZP
• when the light is on an angle to the zone plate
• with a converging beam
• collimated light through a Ronchi grating Hopefully tomorrow will lead me to uncover the mystery of the lost Ronchi grating.

This afternoon we looked over the lens equation 1/f= etc. We then used my set up to look at the lenses and foci etc. Then we saw some basic latex (pronounced la-tech).

### August 10, 2004

This morning I did some more measurements by altering my set up in various ways. This was good hopefully soon I will find the Ronchi grating. This afternoon when I came back from getting coffee light was no longer going through the cable. This was quite discouraging.(sigh)

### August 11, 2004

Dr. Noé thankfully was able to fix the set up. He explained to me the mirror adjusting method. The basic concept is that the tip of the cable has to be directly at the minimum of the waist of the beam.

This afternoon the CCD camera was hooked up to my set up. This added a totally new dimension to measureing the foci.

Tonight I started to look at the Talbot images with the Ronchi grating, and the missing Ronchi grating was found. The first Talbot image was at 41.65 and after that they were every two centimeters.

### August 12, 2004

Today is the last pizza Thursday. This morning I looked at all my data from the zone plates and I found that the foci that I measured were always relatively the same distance from the zone plate. I applied the thin lens formula to it but the focus increased since this object distance was varying and the image distance was the same. I'll have to investigate that more to see what could be making that occur.

After lunch I removed the collimating lens from the carriage, so that I could look at the Talbot effect with diverging light. Its very irritating that I have to work in pitch dark.

### August 12, 2004

Today is the last day of the Simons program. Today I will be kicked out of my home. This morning I measured where the Talbot effect occured with I had the grating stationary and I moved the camera. I had the grating in different places.

### August 18, 2004

Yesterday I had a meeting with my math research teacher at school so I was unable to come into the lab. It was nice to have a day off though especially since I can drive now. I wrote down a game plan in my notebook and well here it is.

### August 26, 2004

Jon and I got lost on the train today. It was very frustrating.

### August 30, 2004

So the question of the day is...How does the collimation of the light affect my data? I think this will be a section of my paper if it yeilds interesting results. When I was thinking about this on the train I thought it would be difficult because how does one measure the edge of a gaussian beam? Then I remembered that I do not have a gaussian beam so in this chapter of my research the hard edge will work to my advantage. Today is also the first day of tennis season and since I have been on the team for the past four years I have memorized my coach's first day of the season speech. Thus I was excused from tennis today but I am really excited to start tomrrow.

### September 3, 2004

I cannot believe it is September already. Anyways now I am at the point of writing my paper on my research. In terms of experimentation I have measured the foci of the zone plate and tried to see foci with divergent light, which did not work. Then I realized that perhaps I can evaluate the properties of a zone plate in relation to a lens. I could find the f number of the zone plate. I still have not figured out how to work out the formula to find the foci of a zone plate. The foci also are not related in the f/3, f/5... which is describe everywhere. The zone plate certainly does act as a lens though because the foci are consistent even when the light is slightly divergent. Another aspect of the zone plate that I could discuss would be the reversibility of the lens itself.

The Talbot effect is cyclic when the light is collimated, which could be cosidered a way to test if the light is properly collimated. I was working out the Talbot images when the light was at 111 and nothing was working out. Then I realized that the light was at 109.6 which made the calculations right on track. I was surprisd that those extra cm affected the calculations so much. I have taken pictures of the cyclic talbot images and the foci formed. I have to take more though and load them on floppy disc becuase as of now they are saved on the hard drive of the computer.

### September 17, 2004

Oh LTC how I have missed you so. Like a lacrosse player who hasn't picked up her stick in a month I had to reacquaint myself with html. This morning well in a few words was a fiasco. But Dr. Noé took us out for lunch and that made everything better. Thank you Dr. Noé :) At lunch we discussed, well college and *sigh* Yale. Azure and I, the ladies at the table throughly enjoyed our Mango Lassies. yum :) Today we made sense of my zone plata data!! This was super exciting like whoa. Anyways this means that when I go home today I can spend some time fooling around with the formula for zone plate foci and hopefully it will work out correctly. The graph we made is really cool. I'd like to somehow be able to quantify the collimation of the light by analyzing the accuracy of my data. With some help I also came up with a title for my project, which means that I can finish the Siemens application. It is:

Focusing Light by Diffraction: Observations and Analysis of Talbot and Fresnel Zone Plate Images

I'm beginning to get very excited about writing my paper. Very good let us just hope that tomorrow is not full of such contrasting high and low points, only dramatic high points.

### September 18, 2004

I won in the race against the storm in the eastward direction so my walk from the station to the lab was relatively dry, unlike Azure and Lidiya's. Lidiya is visiting from Maryland very exciting. She figured out how to save the coordinates of the intensity plots of my pictures as a text file which can be opened by notepad. Well presently I am having trouble with finding all the files that I mounted.

### September 25, 2004

Today should be a good day so I chose yellow as the date color. I have 15 pages of paper but i still need some sort of hypothesis. Today I want to make some graphs and diagrams. Hopefully being in the lab will hone my thought process and I will have an enlightening experience and be able to develope a hypothesis. I'm not sure where to put the section on collimation. I also really have to look over the math with the zone plates because Long Cai's paper is only half right. I also want to start learning LateX. I realized last night that I cannot come to the lab on Sunday becuase I have a lacrosse tournament.