1. Optical Vortices

Optical vortices is the phase singularity of the beam, or the zero intensity of a beam. Helical phase fronts of beams can be arranged so that they cancel each other out in the center, creating a doughnut-like shape. They can be created by different methods, such as traversing a beam through a spiral phase plate, using computer generated holograms, or converting HG modes into LG modes. Higher-order Bessel beams can also be characterized by vortices.

2. Optical Tweezers


3. Mode Conversion

4. Axicons

Axicons are used to transform LG or just Gaussian beams into approximations of Bessel beams by linearization of spatial components. It can also transform LG beams into high-intensity annuli.

  • What I need to find out:

    1. What is the linearization of spatial components??
    2. Can the annulus tweeze?
    3. How does the different properties of axicons affect the transformation of Gaussian beams?
  • Reference Articles

    1. Helical Axicons

5. Far field vs. Near field


(1) y  =  x
(2) left  =    top
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