Stabilizing a Helium-Neon Laser.
Victor Kim, Harold Metcalf and John Noé,
Laser Teaching Center, University at Stony Brook 11794-3800.
Lasers have become an increasingly important component in
undergraduate physics and engineering labs. Most of these labs are
provided with He-Ne lasers. One advantage of the He-Ne laser is that it is
very inexpensive. But this inexpensive laser often exhibits very large
intensity fluctuations, which result from mode switching and persist for
many hours after the laser is turned on. This becomes a very big problem
when an experiment depends on laser intensity. Although rapid sampling or
modulation techniques can be used to overcome these fluctuations, they are
a serious hindrance to many experiments that depend on measurement of
laser intensity. I encountered this problem myself when I was trying to
look for the wave profile of the He-Ne laser.
It is possible to stabilize the He-Ne laser. This can be done by a
optical-thermal feedback technique. Based on a study done in the Laser
Teaching Center with the He-Ne by a former REU research program student,
Stephanie Lim, the tube temperature, the cavity length and the output
polarization are correlated to mode sweeping. As the laser is kept
running, the tube length changes with time, due to thermal expansion,
causing the modes to move position on the gain profile. As the mode moves
out of the grain profile, another mode moves in on the other side of the
profile, producing large intensity fluctuations. By providing an
optical-thermal feedback, the temperature and hence the cavity length of
the laser can be regulated and stabilized, stabilizing the modes, and the
In order to construct a device like this, a full understanding of
electronics, laser physics, and solid state is required. My first step
will be to study the behavior of the He-Ne laser in detail, specially the
behavior of frequency modes with respect to the temperature of the laser.
Once I study these relationships I will have a fairly complete background
to set up my device.
I will construct a device that has the following characteristics.
First the beam originated from the He-Ne laser will go through a beam
splitter separating the beam in two with different intensities. One of
those beams, the one with the lower intensity will go to another beam
splitter, but this time it will separate the beam with two different
polarizations. Two detectors will record each polarized intensity in
volts. Once I turn the feedback on, a power supply will rise and regulate
the temperature of the laser until the difference of voltage for the two
detectors is equal to zero. As mentioned before, the temperature of the
laser changes with respect to time, which results in the change of
intensity. When the detector detects little change in the difference of
intensity, it will send a signal to a power supply that will heat up or
cool down the laser, according to its needs, not allowing the mode
switching and the change in intensity.